Unitcast Residual Waste Landfill: Closure/Post-Closure Plan


City of Toledo


Toledo, OH

CEC Services

  • Erosion & Sedimentation Control/NPDES Permitting
  • Integrated Project Delivery
  • Site Grading/Earthwork Analysis
  • Stormwater Management/BMP Design
  • Brownfield Redevelopment Services
  • Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment
  • Stormwater Sampling and Permitting
  • Construction Quality Assurance
  • Environmental Monitoring/Compliance
  • Landfill Design and Permitting

Owner Objective

The City of Toledo acquired a dormant brownfield site within city limits, which was home to an iron foundry that operated for over 50 years and a residual waste landfill where spent foundry sand and other byproducts were disposed. Previous owners/developers of the site failed to follow through with site cleanup and landfill closure requirements. The site is adjacent to a residential area.

In the 1990s, the original Closure and Post-Closure (CPC) Plan was approved by the Ohio EPA for an out-of-state developer. The developer abandoned the site after removing recyclable materials and declared bankruptcy. The property continued to change ownership through the early 2000s during several unsuccessful attempts to redevelop the site. The City and the Ohio EPA entered into the Director’s Final Findings and Orders (DFFOs) on May 2, 2007, requiring the City to complete closure of the 7.1-acre Unitcast landfill.

The City’s Division of Environmental Services is in charge of implementing the CPC Plan. Closure was delayed due to high construction costs associated with the original CPC Plan and financial constraints. The City hired CEC to update the CPC Plan, assist in obtaining Ohio EPA approval of the updated Plan, and then oversee and certify landfill closure activities.

CEC Approach

CEC worked closely with the City and the Ohio EPA to demonstrate pre-closure conditions are not harmful to human health or to the environment. CEC developed a revised Closure Plan consistent with the regulations in effect when the foundry operations ceased, greatly reducing closure costs. Furthermore, CEC assisted the City in negotiating reduced post-closure monitoring requirements. Approximately three years after closure, the City can petition the Ohio EPA to exit the post-closure monitoring program, well before the regulatory 30-year requirement.

The CPC Plan was approved by the Ohio EPA and minimized the costs and liability for the City of Toledo. CEC provided CQA and surveying services during construction to verify construction in accordance with the Final Closure Plan. CEC worked closely with the City of Toledo and their Contractor to adjust construction details to minimize waste relocation and disturbance of native soils. Soil recompaction criteria were also revised to accommodate the use of on-site borrow soils. The final closure included placement of vegetative cover, surface water management features and perimeter fencing.